Sunday, December 11, 2011




Politicizing the church - the church and politics

Increasingly powerful patronage Mr. Right
In the decades after King Sigismund's death reached the Holy See, Hungary, that the popes, the practice of granting of episcopal and archiepiscopal chair of the King (or the Regents and State) recognized that had the right to representation and appointment.Rome had to be content with the confirmation of the successful candidates. Unless the Holy See, but the confirmation was refused, the lead candidate of the king his diocese as bishop elect (electus) and come into the enjoyment of their income and participate in meetings of the Privy Council. The pope was only entitled to the appointment, when the prelate died in Rome. Matthias but continued his law through even in such cases was as archbishop died John of Aragon in Rome, the king made ​​1486 a relative of his wife, the seven-year Hippolit d 'Este , the head of the Hungarian Church.
Sometimes practiced, the king appointed his right personally, but delegated it to one of his followers. Mihály Ország Guti example was given permission to award the bishop of Nitra, although the rulers withdrew it shortly afterwards. As a result of his conquests of Matthias exercised his right as supreme patronage of Mr. and outside Hungary. Thus the escape including Orbán of Nagylúcse to the top of the diocese of Vienna. Even under the Jagiellonian did not change the consistent church policy. When Pope Alexander VI. up again to the papal right of renewal of vacant church offices at the papal court, rap began, seized the parliament of 1495 the following resolution:. Anyone who would get his living by someone other than the king, must be drowned István WerbőczysTripartitum that the view of later centuries exerted great influence, pointing to the right of the Hungarian king as supreme patron Lord in four points.
With the support of Rome against the Turks
The resilience of the popes in the patronage of Mr. Right question was closely linked with the struggle against the "infidel" Turks.It was known in Rome that it would be impossible without the participation of Hungary, to prevent further expansion of the Ottomans, or lead to war against them on the mainland. But the rulers of Hungary were themselves aware that they could count on pushing back the limits of her as we near the Ottoman Empire under the powers of Europe in the first instance by the papacy to provide substantial support (financial, logistics, relationships). The organization of the Crusades (1444, 1456) entrusted the important personalities of the Holy See papal diplomacy, as the Cardinals Giuliano Cesarini and the Juan Carvajal or legacies. Also on Matthias' time sent the popes Pius II and Paul II and Sixtus IV incessantly considerable sums for this purpose. Between 1459 and 1476 250 000 Goldforint flowed into the country. But the absence of an active Turkish policy on the part of the king remained the grants made from the 1480s until around 1500 and began to flow again.
In the era of the Jagiellonian would be the Hungarian-Vatican relations on both sides already through most permanent diplomatic representatives in Budapest and Rome. The anti-Turkish Vatican Hungary treated as particularly important diplomatic partner and had, therefore, in Buda represented at senior level: The most talented diplomats of the Roman Curia were here trying to organize the Turkish war (which they sometimes also prevented one or the other way for a good peace ). 1513 was the former with some chances to be elected pope occurred Archbishop Tamás Bakócz as a legacy far-reaching powers to proclaim a crusade which erupted then, however, into a peasant war. As the papal envoy - the most famous among them was Antonio Burgio - were allowed to attend the meetings of the Privy Council, they also had influence on domestic affairs. With the consent of the papal legates were before the battle of Mohacs large quantities of memorabilia collected from precious metals and used in the interest of the country.
Prelates in politics
The high dignitaries (prelates) as an ecclesiastical barons were ex officio members of the Privy Council and the Diet. Treated in this period were the two archbishops, 14 bishops (including the diocesan bishops of Bosnia and Sirmium or by Modrus and Tinnin in Croatia) and the provost of Székesfehérvár , the head of the Hungarian Province of the Order of St. John and the Prior of Vrana.During his reign it in Matthias managed to limit the influence of the prelates who were in this age of the Jagiellonian - because they occupied the chancellor's office - significantly affect the country's politics and its political importance was underscored by the size of their livelihoods more. The greater part of that income (two thirds) came from the church tithes, which they could collect through its own network of Zehnteinnehmern or mainly in the form of tithe lease sold. So it happened that the prelate had more money than secular landlords revenue, which is why it is not their military commitments to the key of the war the people of Grundbesitzungen had to fulfill, but in a predetermined strength team.
For the purposes of Article 1498:20 laws the clergy had set up 7000 riders, including 4100, the bishops. They sacrificed more of their assets for the defense of the country than the rest of society. In the decades before Mohács the protection of the country rested next to the royal garrisons of the fortresses on the frontier gang arteries of the church. Some prelates, such as Péter Beriszló or Pál Tomori , distinguished themselves with their talent as a leader in the secular representatives of the profession. The concentration of several lucrative church offices in one hand was partly the aim of centralizing the country's defense. Often, however, presented the senior clergy in the Europe of the 15th Century general phenomenon of accumulation of wealth in the service of their own material interests, including the patronage belonged. Were significantly diminished the income of the prelates of the papal court to be paid to the tithe, the various fees for the appointment of the papal bull to perform a route (servitium) and the Annates.
As a corporation is involved only among the clergy, the prelates of the country's politics. Ungarländische the church as a whole, however changed over the Hungarian estates development is not a separate political entity. This is probably related to the fact that in Hungary the share of Church property, as measured by Europe, was low. He was about 15%. Besides the enormous wealth of some prelates (Archdiocese of Esztergom, dioceses Eger [Eger], Wardein, Pécs [five churches], Abbey Pannonhalma, which corresponded to the way, compared with the goods secular landowners, the estates of middle- barons ), most religious institutions possessed only than medium or small estates. The number of castles located in Church Manual was also low (ca. 12%), and even these did not evolve to power centers. This Kirchenbesitzungen - their ideal property owner, the patron saint - were generally widely scattered, making it difficult, in contrast to the secular estates and more expensive to manage their protection.
The policy serves canons
In the Middle Ages there was no centrally-paid officials layer of the execution of governmental, judicial, diplomatic affairs and so was responsible. In the early period (11th-12th century) referred the Kings educated churchmen, ie clerics (especially canons), one in the government work. From 13th-14th Century in paid or rewarded their courtiers (royal secretaries, judges, law firms and notaries Curia, Treasury staff) then by donation of church benefices. Since there were relatively few bishoprics, the office of a canon was particularly suited for this purpose. The orders of canons took from 14 Century before the king, by virtue of his patron Mr. Right. Also the cost of attending foreign universities are covered (for lack of scholarship system) mostly from Domherreneinkünften.

Church in the Service of Society

The upper and middle classes
Canons, who were in the service of secular authorities or studied abroad and stayed informed, rarely at the headquarters of the chapter, where they used for their permanent representatives liturgical tasks. As the 15th Century dawned, had developed the chapter on institutions, which created the material basis for the intellectual activity of educated Hungarian clerics layer. Several of the officials of intellectuals who joined in supporting only out of compulsion or social requirements a religious order, or even make it to the canons Bishop brought were basically secular but sentiments were, of the larger orders only reluctantly, as beneficiaries received episcopal benefice ( Szatmári György , László Szalkai ), where they tried to simultaneously fulfill their duties as pastors.The first primate of the time Matthias, Cardinal Dénes Szécsi sought to discipline by church councils in the church districts orChurch visitations restore.
Priests and believers in the villages
Often took namely the lower clergy, the pastors of smaller churches and chaplains, an example of the life of their authority, even by the breaking of the celibacy is in the sources mentioned. They stood by the exercise of pastoral work in close contact to the believers, they said mass, preached, they gave most of the sacraments, they directed and supervised the observance of the 100 market and public holidays a year. Their work and life were in turn by their immediate supervisor, the control of their number (the larger parishes) next, at the headquarters of their church district resident dean. The dean then led their reports as the members of the chapter at the headquarters of the church district resident Archdeacon, in the parish church from time to time searches conducted.
In the 15th Century in Hungary, there were hardly any major settlement, had not been in a church. The most part of stone, to a lesser extent churches were built of wood, the villagers in case of danger as a refuge. In Transylvania were made for this purpose so-called fortified churches built. Newly settled villages solved the problem of missing church, usually by setting up a daughter church (filia) of the nearest parish church elder. Came to the income derived from the faithful of the parishes not only in villages but also in the cities often serious quarrels between mother and daughter churches. The pastor of the Church of Our Blessed Mother, Ms. Buda, for example, the conversion of its daughter churches into independent parishes opposed long time.
The setting of the village priest was indeed continue to be primarily on the rights and obligations of the Patrons. But had the choice of the pastor in the 15th Century, both in cities and towns, as well as a say in the villages of the municipalities is an important word. Authority of the Church's self-management right of the faithful was supported. The management of their number elected trustees of the church property and in some cases could even supervise the priest. The local priest came mostly from the ranks of the serfs. End of the Middle Ages, already had a higher education degree, and most were found at home almost every basicliturgical books . A priest was not only the pastor of a village, but also the spiritual leader of his people, their counselor and the guardian of the local customs. Not by chance they took on the Peasants' Revolt of 1514 in part so numerous. On the other hand, in contemporary texts is also the form of wooing, despotic and taverns outreach priest not uncommon.
Priests and believers in the towns
The religion had in the late Middle Ages waned, but evolved into a more intimate, individualized piety. With the urban way of life, new forms of religious life, such as the various religious brotherhoods (confraternitas) with almost exclusively secular members.Most were founded under the name Body of Christ and were generally distinguished patrician confraternities. The guilds also served simultaneously as religious communities who donated to the church from their property a (wing) altar. Celebrations they organized in the framework of the guilds, and they celebrated with their family members. Step by step, took over the management of urban citizenship and the poor and medical care, which were until then had been exclusively in the hands of the church. The standing under the supervision of the city, but hospitals were operated by the Church in hospitals and nursing homes.
The clergy of the privileged churches of the 15th Century regarded their office as often only source of income. That they could dispose of the entire decade of revenue, secured them in comparison to their counterparts in rural areas a comfortable life. They were barely in their parishes and left their duties of deputies, the chaplains do. The latter were on a par with the village priests, like the layer of the altar and chapel dome or directors of urban parishes, whose numbers increased significantly in the treated period.For the believers donated time for the souls of deceased, for the purpose of shortening the time in purgatory to be moved more and more exhibitions. The one altar or chapel made goods and money donations made it possible to provide for the upkeep of the social life playing an important role intellectual cleric layer. Often been the opposite and this side "benefit" of grace an exhibition of priests and believers alike attached exaggerated importance, as they also misunderstood the drain.
Church and everyday
Because of the high infant mortality rate had newborns as soon as it was (if possible, within eight days) are brought into the church so that they, generally by triple immersion, and were baptized in this way, a member of the church. Also to be confirmed - that the sacrament baptized for the gift of the Holy Spirit enriched to live by their faith - it was mostly still in its infancy, as well as to the first confession. Until then she had to know the prayers of penitence necessary, and indeed the text of the Our Father (Pater Noster), the Ave Maria and the Creed (Creed, Creed). In general, the believers went to confession once a year and attended the Communionpart. The provisions of canon law were allowed according boys after completion of 14th and girls after completion of 12th Age to take the sacrament of marriage to be. In danger of death or illness was called for a priest to prevent the dying man ended his life without the last anointing. In this situation, it was customary to express the last wishes, the priest of the place where the will was writing and provided for its enforcement.
The dead were buried by the priest on an area close to the church cemetery fenced. The church could only be Patrons and bury those who had contributed with donations to their building. Heiden, excommunicated, suicides, and all those from whom it was known that she had died in mortal sin was self-conscious, not to a church funeral. Varied depending on the church and sometimes diverging district were the ceremonies and liturgical acts that emerged at the funerals and other important events to festivals and to understand the mysteries of faith. Some were even as a special attraction, such as the processional. Attend worship in the Latin language, the faithful took part mainly as a listener, although in the 15th Century, even native-language versions of liturgicalhymns were chants and Marie. To find for the trials of everyday life mentioned the faithful with the saints help.
Church and Culture
The training of pastors on a rural minister preparatory office was also in the late Middle Ages to the good practice that is within the parishes. The candidate had before his consecration of a bishop's Commission statement on its liturgical and administration of a parish lay the necessary skills. The basic texts he had by heart, just as in reading and singing skills were required. Furthermore, it was possible to acquire advanced knowledge in the chapter schools. Some of these schools (Pécs, Wardein) developed in the 15thCentury to local centers of humanism. The third, a short time only existing medieval university of Hungary in Pressburg (Academia Istropolitana, 1467) was - thanks to the efforts of King Matthias and Janos Vitez founded on the seat of a cathedral chapter, based on its intellectual base, - '. Because of the lack of royal support and archbishop had to close the university in the 1490s again. A foreign university had nearly half of all the canons and bishops attended.
Reform in the monastic orders
Originally focused on contemplation and liturgy monastic orders - Benedictine, Cistercian, Premonstratensian - saw the end of the Middle Ages, contrary to its inexorable decline. They had paid neither the training nor the modern university education for their members enough attention. There were more fortunate in those monasteries which sided addition to their primary duties are other functions: for example Báta was a pilgrimage site, Zalavár, Kapornak Garamszentbenedek and were among the more important places where they exercised authentic activity. At the beginning of the 16th Century took the Benedictines led by Archabbot Pannonhalma, Máté Tomai, a reform movement directed against the dissolution of their beginning, their goal of an alliance was actually unabbhängigen monasteries. In 1512 came the Union which is under royal patronage of monasteries - Pannonhalma Pécsvárad, Szekszárd Báta, Somogyvár, Zalavár, Garamszentbenedek and Bakonybél - reached a long-term success, however, was not granted her.
While King Matthias particularly for the reform of the Cistercian order began to linked the measures to reorganize under the leadership of the Premonstratensian provost of Ság, Ferenc Fegyverneki, the renovation efforts of the mother monastery in France and were also supported by Tamás Bakócz. In addition to her duties as a genuine entity engaged in places (eg in Lelesz was the largest institution issuing documents of the late Middle Ages active), the Norbertine busy with the ministry, but they belonged to her duties as a regular canons. Often they did so against the will of the secular clergy, the bishops and archdeacons, as monks in general had no right to pastoral care. Testified that they not only their greater openness to the society but also the resulting greater popularity. In the 15th Century Benedictine dealt nine and ten Prämonstratenserklöster with the exercise of authentic activity, whereas the Cistercians not only this activity, but also closed about to bury in their churches secular.
Flowering hermit and popular mendicant
The four Carthusian monasteries on the other hand did not have to be reformed, because they followed unswervingly its original ideals, which, inter alia, its residents, mainly Austrian and German, relationships strengthened. They distinguished themselves particularly in the field of writing and copying manuscripts (primarily Lövölde). The Pauline still enjoyed great popularity and were even able to populate new monasteries. Until 1450 the number of their king, prelates, aristocrats but also wealthier nobles founded convents rose to ninety. The Dominicans set to maintain its influence in the cities not on the foundation of new monasteries, but to increased pastoral care. He also had among its members in academic work to be a habitual activity. The University of the Dominicans in Buda (general studies) in the Middle Ages was the most stable institution of higher education in Hungary, in an indication of 1530 it is mentioned for the last time.
The tasks of the Dominicans, it was also to make the heretics locate and respond to the Church, that the Inquisition. However, after the suppression of the Hussite movement of the mid-15th Century there was not much to do. 1483 was when the Pope appointed a teacher at the University of Buda make Dominicans (Miklos Kassai), the Inquisitor not occupied, since this office a long time. The work of some late medieval inquisitors has left virtually no trace. In the years before Mohacs they had to go against the Lutheran Reformation, which spread particularly in German-speaking cities of Buda and some larger. The more so as the Queen Mary and her strange environment of the new doctrines openly contrary sympathies brought. By the Diet even laws against supporters of the new denomination adopted (laws and articles 1523:53 1525:4), as the penalties and the loss of the head of the goods and then fixed the Scheiterhaufentod. For enforcement, however, there was only one or two cases.
The biggest change among the mendicant orders took place in the period covered by the Franciscans. After 1350, founded theFranciscan Province of the Order in Hungary, only eight new monasteries, the last 1425th Against those based in convents, on a common patrimony, as Conventual and then later called Marian flow rose in the 14th Century a reform movement within the Order, which the stricter observance of the rules of St.. Francis asked (that's why they were called Observant ). This (later called Salvatorian) branch of the Franciscan Order took the end of the 14th Century by the Bosnian province of the order to Hungary, and in 1448 he was in Hungary, after he had taken over the management of multiple Konventualklöster, form their own province.Theoretically, the unit was Franciscan Order of the way through till the end of the Middle Ages are, in practice they were already regarded as a self-Observant to Order. The final separation was pronounced 1517th
Found support for the Observant especially for rulers and magnates. The number of their monasteries grew in quick succession: while they owned in 1440 still 25 religious houses, she possessed in 1475 in ten Wachten (custodia) already has 49 monasteries, by 1500 over 67, and before Mohacs, there were already 70 convents, in which about 1500 -1700 monks lived. Their popularity resulted from the fact that they are in smaller towns and villages took over the ministry. The interest in the canonization of St. John of Kapistrano made ​​out logs show that they significantly with their activities to the development of popular religiosity contributed.Especially compared to the missionary efforts of the invading Ottomans was needed on the southern border of their deployment.Her for several decades - especially by Pelbart Temesvári and Osvát Laskai has experienced severe social criticism played in the spiritual preparation and the outbreak of the peasant war led by Dózsa a major role -.
The nuns
Dominicans and Franciscans drew mainly the religious life of those founded by women religious communities, which belonged to their religious organization: the convents, the houses of the Third Estate and the Beguines . Great was the number of pins in Hungary, not, but its residents came from the noblest families. Most famous among the convents of the Dominican Order, the monastery was on Margaret Island. It was inhabited at the end of the Middle Ages as well as many nuns in the 13th Century at the time of St. Margaret . Also, the Poor Clares the Franciscan Order in Hungary had only five or six monasteries. The best known was the (mother of Louis I.) by Queen Elizabeth, founded in Pest. She made her appeal not only to teachers of the female members of the aristocratic society - many here brought up again later turned to the secular life - but also founders of the Hungarian Code of literature.

Standing outside the Catholic Church

People living in the Hungarian cities were Jews as servants of the royal chamber, which is why they enjoyed direct royal protection.Since the Anjouzeit stood at the head of the "judge of the Jews," which is named among the highest secular dignitaries. He registered her property and she also took care of obtaining incriminating information. As part of the Treasury reform under King Matthias was this office of treasurer János Ernuszt dissolved and instead formed the so-called Jewish state Prefecture. She has already received a Jewish leader, whose wide-ranging powers also extended to measures to protect the Jews. At the end of the Middle Ages mention the sources of Jewish residents in 38 towns. But the situation of this population, estimated at about 15-20000 people share deteriorated at that time resistant. Attacks, they were not primarily exposed by the Church, but the weakened royal power was no longer able to protect them from the views expressed by the Company in particular because of its assets and business affairs of antipathy. 1525 as it fell on the house in Buda, Vice-Treasurer of the Jewish Imre Szerencs.
Greek Orthodox
As a result of the Turkish advance multiplied in the southern and eastern parts of Hungary, the number of Greek Orthodox faith groups - the Serbs, Romanians and Ruthenians. Took her to the fate of Florence in 1439 after lengthy negotiations that have been made between Western Union and Eastern Church has little effect. Although they had a ritual celebrant under Greek, but Roman Catholic bishop. But how seriously they took the beliefs of the Union, lack of information can be difficult to decide. The episcopal residence was in fact either in the Greek Orthodox monastery Körtvélyes that the ancestors of Drágfis was founded in 1391, and also in the Greek Orthodox, from 1491 equipped with episcopate rights Munkács monastery. The heads of these monasteries (Iugemenen), the Patriarch of Constantinople, the authority granted to the consecration of the Orthodox priests working in Hungary. Even the Serbian despot George Brankovitsch and his family kept their Orthodox faith. On their estates and their surroundings were after Greek Orthodox ritual - and the name of the Diocese of Belgrade - consecrated bishops operate.


Indulgence, pilgrimage

The pilgrimage was playing in the religious life of the Middle Ages an important role. A devout man, who visited the church or chosen for this pilgrimage and there performed the required actions - ie took off the confession, took part in the Communion, and prayers appropriate language - indulgences gained for a certain number of days. That is, to many days he was able to shorten the time that one day he had to stew in purgatory. Naturally developed among the places of pilgrimage, a certain hierarchy. To visit the most important pilgrimage sites, put thousands of pilgrims every year distances of several hundred or even thousands of miles back. But in most cases, the influence of the operative field via a discharge permit churches lasted only a few villages.
Among the many places of pilgrimage, which in the 15th-16th Century in Hungary was, was the grave of St. Ward One. Ladislaus the most important. The final resting place of 1192 canonized king knight was visited by people from all parts of the country, and felt the Hungarian kings as their duty to make a pilgrimage to Wardein. Moreover, in medieval Hungary, four other tombs were regarded as sanctuaries with nationwide significance: the grave of St. Stephen in Székesfehérvár, the grave of Margaret, in 1270 deceased daughter of Bela IV, on the Rabbit Island (although one Margaret only in 1943 canonized) the grave of St.. Paul the Hermit in the Pauline monastery of Budaszentlőrinc arrived from Venice in 1381 with the relics of the saint, who died in 1456, and the grave of John of Kapistrano in Újlak.
From the second half of the 14th Century proved the power of the Hungarian pilgrimage by the appearance of the relics of St..Blood balanced. First came to the pilgrimage sites Esztergom and Kosice. Zu den bedeutenderen gehörten das Benediktinerkloster Garamszentbenedek, ebenfalls mit einer Heiligenblutreliquie, und die Kirche im slawonischen Ludberg. Aber die bekannteste dieser Reliquien wurde im Benediktinerkloster von Báta aufbewahrt. Nach den heimischen Wallfahrtsorten pilgerten vorwiegend die Bauern und unteren Schichten der Bürgerschaft in großer Zahl. Den Klerus vertrat die niedere Geistlichkeit, den Adel die Adligen niederen Standes; Aristokraten oder Prälaten konnte man nur selten begegnen.
Ungarische Pilger suchten natürlich nicht nur die heimischen, sondern auch ausländische Wallfahrtsorte auf, und darunter in erster Linie die bedeutenderen. Die hauptsächlichsten Pilgerziele waren Rom, Aachen und Jerusalem. Doch auch ins ferne Santiago de Compostela, ins französische Rocamadour, nach Bari und Loreto in Italien sowie ins Purgatorium des hl. Patrick in Irland führte sie ihre Pilgerfahrt. Wer nach Aachen pilgerte, besuchte unterwegs die anderen bedeutenden Wallfahrtsstätten auf deutschem Boden: die berühmten Reliquien von Köln, Trier, Düren und Regensburg. Vom Ende des 14. Jahrhunderts an, nach einer Schenkung Ludwigs I., wurde im Kreis der ungarischen Pilger die Gnadenkirche im nahegelegenen Mariazell populär.
Von Ungarn trat man eine Reise ins Ausland in erster Linie aus Gründen der Devotion an. Wegen der großen Entfernungen konnten weder Arme noch Heilungsuchende eine ausländische Pilgerfahrt wagen - sie zog es eher zu den heimischen Wallfahrtsstätten. Die ins Ausland pilgernden Ungarn kamen überwiegend aus den wohlhabenderen Kreisen der städtischen Bürgerschaft bzw. des Adels. Bürgerliche Pilger bevorzugten als Wallfahrtsort Aachen. Viele wählten aber auch Rom, wohin Vertreter jeglichen gesellschaftlichen Standes gelangten. Aachen besuchte man in erster Linie zu den aller sieben Jahre stattfindenden großen Pilgerfahrten, Rom dagegen in den heiligen Jubiläumsjahren.
Ins Heilige Land pilgerten angesichts der großen Schwierigkeiten und hohen Kosten hauptsächlich Aristokraten. Innerhalb der Kirche gab es in diesem Fall keine so scharfe Abgrenzung zwischen niederer Geistlichkeit und Prälaten. Unabhängig von ihrem Vermögensstand waren sie an sämtlichen Wallfahrtsorten anzutreffen. Kirchenmännern verdanken wir auch die beiden vom Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts überlieferten ausführlichen Reisebeschreibungen: Die erste stammt von dem Franziskanerbruder Gábor Pécsváradi, der zwischen 1514 und 1517 im Heiligen Land weilte. Den zweiten Bericht über die Reise des siebenbürgischen Domherren János Lászai kann man im Tagebuch seines Freundes und Reisegefährten, des Ulmer Dominikanermönchs Felix Faber, nachlesen.
Vor Antritt einer Reise sorgte der Pilger zunächst für die notwendigen Reisekosten, ersuchte im Falle einer Pilgerfahrt ins Heilige Land um päpstliche Erlaubnis, machte ein Testament und trug Sorge, seine zurückbleibende Familie bzw. Güter sicherzustellen (zB Aufschub seiner Prozesse). Die Kosten für eine Pilgerfahrt nach Rom oder Aachen betrugen durchschnittlich 30-40 Goldforint, für einer Reise ins Heilige Land mußte das Vier- oder Fünffache veranschlagt werden. Wesentlich mehr kostete die Pilgerfahrt eines Barons, da er sich von einem Teil seiner Dienerschaft und einem größeren bewaffneten Gefolge begleiten ließ. Als der bosnische König Miklós Újlaki 1475 nach Rom oder Herzog János Corvin 1502 nach Loreto pilgerten, beide an der Spitze einer mehr als hundert Mann starken Truppe, waren dies sogar in Italien bedeutende Ereignisse.

Volkstümliche Religiosität

Das Christentum und die nicht in den christlichen Glaubenssätzen zu findenden Vorstellungen - von außerirdischen Wesen, übermenschlichen Kräften - widersprachen einander nicht. Selbst die gebildetsten Kirchenmänner glaubten zB an den bösen Blick, das Gesundbeten oder an Zauber. Diese Vorstellungen wichen nur dann von den offiziellen Lehren der Kirche ab, wenn sie den Tatbestand des Sakrilegs erfüllten, mit ketzerischen Lehren verbunden waren oder anderen schadeten. In solch einem Fall stellte man die Zauberin/den Zauberer vor Gericht, untersuchte ihre/seine Angelegenheit nach dem üblichen Verfahren und bestrafte sie/ihn. Von hysterischen Massenverfolgungen im mittelalterlichen Ungarn ist uns nichts bekannt.
Volkstümliche Heilmethoden und Zauberei waren untrennbar miteinander verbunden. Sich auf Heilkräuter verstehenden Frauen - damals Wunderheilerinnen oder Seherinnen genannt - beteten heilkräftige Sprüche her, dh sie sprachen den Kranken gesund. Das Wort Seherin bedeutete die damit zusammenhängende Kontaktherstellung zum Jenseits. Sie konnten verborgene Schätze sehen oder Tiere, die sich verlaufen hatten, und mit den Seelen der Verstorbenen sprechen. Für einen Zauber verwendeten sie menschliche Behaarung bzw. Sekrete sowie Organe von Tieren. Als besonders wirksam und deshalb wertvoll galten geweihte kirchliche Gegenstände: das Altarsakrament oder ein Auge, welches einem gemalten Porträt Jesu oder des hl. Johannes ausgekratzt wurde. Der Zauber mit letztgenanntem war allerdings ein riskantes Verfahren, denn wenn es herauskam, stand darauf der Feuertod.

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